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Open Access Review

Relevance of animal models to human tardive dyskinesia

Pierre J Blanchet1234*, Marie-Thérèse Parent2, Pierre H Rompré1 and Daniel Lévesque5

Author Affiliations

1 Faculty of Dental Medicine, University of Montreal, PO Box 6128, Succ. Centre-ville, Montreal, QC, H3C 3J7, Canada

2 Central Nervous System Research Group, University of Montreal, PO Box 6128, Succ. Centre-ville, Montreal, QC, H3C 3J7, Canada

3 University of Montreal Hospital Centre (C.H.U. Montreal), 1560 Sherbrooke St. East, Montreal, QC, H2L 4M1, Canada

4 Louis-H. Lafontaine Hospital, 7401 Hochelaga St., Montreal, QC H1N 3M5, Canada

5 Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Montreal, PO Box 6128, Succ. Centre-ville, Montreal, QC, H3C 3J7, Canada

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Behavioral and Brain Functions 2012, 8:12  doi:10.1186/1744-9081-8-12

Published: 9 March 2012

Abstract

Tardive dyskinesia remains an elusive and significant clinical entity that can possibly be understood via experimentation with animal models. We conducted a literature review on tardive dyskinesia modeling. Subchronic antipsychotic drug exposure is a standard approach to model tardive dyskinesia in rodents. Vacuous chewing movements constitute the most common pattern of expression of purposeless oral movements and represent an impermanent response, with individual and strain susceptibility differences. Transgenic mice are also used to address the contribution of adaptive and maladaptive signals induced during antipsychotic drug exposure. An emphasis on non-human primate modeling is proposed, and past experimental observations reviewed in various monkey species. Rodent and primate models are complementary, but the non-human primate model appears more convincingly similar to the human condition and better suited to address therapeutic issues against tardive dyskinesia.

Keywords:
tardive dyskinesia; stereotypies; vacuous chewing movements; antipsychotic drugs; dopamine receptors; non-human primates